I highly recommend people read a little about this before getting on any pro or anti-bandwagon. This issue is both negative and positive, and it's important to understand why it's necessary. Another important thing to understand, no-one is getting jailed or kicked out (except for new illegal immigrants that get caught) - everyone not on the NRC list will get months/years to prove they are original Indian citizens (most in those States are not unfortunately). India which already has one of the largest populations (still largely rural and agri-based) hasn't till recently had a legit way of stopping illegal immigration since what has happened is that regional parties have allowed immigrants in so that they keep getting voted into power (before BJP came into power there were IDs, but not centralized or administered properly) - only since the BJP has come into power has this started to go down. It's always been a big issue in India, but tough to do anything about because previous governments turned a blind eye to it so that they'd keep getting votes and/or keep their local allies happy (regional parties that were getting votes from non-Indians). And this whole Muslim/Hindu thing - like I said, read up on it, and don't be ignorant. Most of these border States are Hindu/Christian - population from Bangladesh/attached countries are largely Muslim, so it makes sense that most illegal immigrants are Muslim. Of course the media likes to push certain points, so you have some 'tabloid news' sites trying to make it a Hindu vs Muslim thing. Also important to note, the number is around 4.2million whose citizenship checks have been rejected for now - and not 30 mil as it seems to imply in the OP. Again, don't be ignorant, read up on what you plan to talk about. As for time to appeal rejections, briefly - people have 4 months to go to tribunals which have 6 months to decide each case, and after that people can decide to take their cases to High Courts (which themselves can take months) and then the Supreme Court. Till then India can't actually deport/jail anyone. The people getting jailed are illegal immigrants coming in now, after proper border checks have been put in place.